医学新闻 Medical News 20160630

admin Post in 2016.07, 医学新闻
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1. 在BMJ杂志网站上的一项研究中,研究人员使用初级保健数据库,研究首诊小于65岁的成人抑郁症患者使用抗抑郁药和心血管不良事件之间的关联。在5年的随访中,研究人员发现,使用三环抗抑郁药第一个月心律失常的风险增加 (BMJ 2016 Mar 22; 352:i1350)。  

2. 在美国心脏病学院杂志的PROMISE试验中, 稳定冠心病心绞痛患者被随机分为功能测试或结构测试。当男性和女性参与者的数据被分别进行评估时,研究人员发现,女性的阳性计算机断层造影结果较应激试验更与不良临床亊件有关 (J Am Coll Cardiol 2016 Apr 4; (e-pub)。  

3. 在美国心脏病学院杂志的一项研究中,慢性心脏衰竭和维生素D缺乏症患者被随机分为每天补充维生素D3或安慰剂一年。与安慰剂相比,补充维生素D患者左心室射血分数,舒张末期容积和舒张末期内径改善更大 (J Am Coll Cardiol 2016 Apr 4; (e-pub))。  

4. 在3月24日新英格兰医学杂志一项大型观察研究中,研究人员评估了服用不同类别抗糖尿病药物的糖尿病患者心脏衰竭住院的风险。分析表明,基于肠促胰岛素治疗的降糖药心脏衰竭住院的风险并不高于其它类的降糖药 (N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 24; 374:1145)。    

5. 在BMJ杂志网站上一项人群队列研究中,研究人员证实了使用吡格列酮的糖尿病患者膀胱癌风险相对增加的早期研究。他们发现, 风险的增加是依赖于剂量和使用时间 (BMJ 2016 Mar 30; 352:i1541)。  

6. 在4月5日JAMA的一项研究中,研究人员发现,减肥手术1年和3年后,疼痛和身体机能有显著改善 (JAMA 2016 Apr 5; 315:1362)。

7. 在4月21日新英格兰医学杂志的一项前瞻性研究中,研究人员评估了中风专家管理的中风中心短暂性脑缺血或轻度中风后中风复发风险。他们发现,中风复发率在一年时与其他中心相比有显著下降, 5%的累积率 (N Engl J Med 2016 Apr 21;374:1533)。  

8. 在4月12日JAMA的一项多中心研究中,重症监护病房机械通气的谵妄患者被随机分为接受右美托咪事 (dexmedetomidine)或安慰剂治疗7天。与安慰剂组相比,美托咪啶组所需低丙泊酚,苯二氮卓和阿片类药物较少,谵妄缓解更快,拔管更早 (JAMA 2016 Apr 12; 315:1460)。

9. 在内科医学年鉴网站上的一项病例对照研究中,研究人员检测了长期护理设施居民的艰难梭菌感染率。他们发现,居住在高抗生素使用率地区的非抗生素使用居民, 艰难梭菌感染率明显高于居住在低抗生素使用率地区的居民 (Ann Intern Med 2016 Apr 19; (e-pub))。

10. 在临床传染病的网站的一项研究中,简单伤口感染在急诊科治疗的患者被随机接受克林霉素或磺胺7天的疗程。他们发现,两组的耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染治愈率类似 (Clin Infect Dis 2016 Mar 29; (e-pub))。

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In a study on the website of the BMJ, researchers used a primary care database to examine associations between antidepressant use and adverse cardiovascular events in adults less than 65 years of age with first diagnosis of depression. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the researchers found that, compared with no antidepressant  use tri cyclic antidepressants were associated with increased risk for arrhythmias during the first month of use.

 

  1. On the website of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, researchers analyzed data from the PROMISE  trial, in which patients with stable coronary angina were randomized to either functional testing or anatomic testing. When the data for male and female participants were evaluated separately, the researchers found that in women, positive computed tomography angiography was associated more strongly with adverse events then were positive stress tests.

 

 

  1. In a study on the website of the Journal of American College of Cardiology, patients with chronic heart failure and vitamin D deficiency were randomized to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 or placebo for one year. Compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation was associated with greater improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-diastolic dimension.

 

  1. In a large observational study in the March 24 New England Journal of Medicine, researchers assessed risk for heart failure-related hospitalization in patients with diabetes taking different classes of anti-diabetes agents. Adjusted analysis show that, compared with other antidiabetes agents neither class of incretin–based therapies is associated with excess risk.

 

 

  1. In the population-based cohort study on the website of the BMJ, researchers confirmed earlier research showing a relative increase in risk for bladder cancer associated with the use of pioglitazone by patients with diabetes. Their findings included that increase in risk was dependent on dose and increase in risk was dependent on duration of use.

 

  1. In a study in the April 5 issue of JAMA, researchers evaluating outcomes at 1 and 3 years after bariatric surgery show that measures of pain and  physical function significantly improved from baseline to 1 year, then slightly declined thereafter but remained clinically significant.

 

 

  1. In a prospective study in the April 21 New England Journal of Medicine, researchers evaluated the risk for stroke after a transient ischemic attack or minor strokes in patients treated in centers with dedicated systems involving stroke specialists. They found that rates of stroke were significantly lower compared with other studies, with accumulative rate of 5% at one year.

 

  1. In a multicenter study in the April 12 issue of JAMA, patients in intensive care units who developed agitated delirium and were being mechanically ventilated were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine matter or placebo for less than 7 days. Compared with the placebo group, the dexmedetomidine group required lower quantities of propofol, benzodiazepine and opioids,  had faster resolution of the delirium, was extubated sooner.

 

 

  1. In a case-control study on the website of the Annals of Internal Medicine, researchers examined the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection among  residents of long-term care facilities. They found that, in nonantibiotic users, risk for C. difficile infection among those who resided in areas with  high antibiotic use was  higher than that in regions with low antibiotic use.

 

  1. In a study in the website of Clinical Infectious Diseases, patients with uncomplicated wound infections managed in emergency departments were randomized to receive equivalent 7-day courses  of either clindamycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. They found that cure rates were similar between groups for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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