2019.10 医学新闻

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  1. In a trial on the website of JAMA Internal Medicine investigating the effects of protein intake on lean body mass and a physical function, men (average age, 73 years) were randomized to protein intake of 0.8 g/kg per day or 1.3 g/kg per day plus weekly intramuscular injection of testosterone or placebo. At 6 months, the researchers found increased lean body mass among men who received testosterone, regardless of protein intake.
  • In the March issue of Arthritis Care and Research, researchers evaluated the effects of fish consumption on disease activities scores in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Compared with those who ate fish less than once per month patients who ate fish more than twice per week had significantly lowers scores and experienced a significant further reduction in disease activity scores for each additional weekly serving of fish.
  • In a meta-analysis in the December 19, 2017 issue of the Cochreane Dabase of Systematic Reviews, probiotic prophylaxis against C. difficile-associated diarrhea was beneficial for adults, children and patients with > 5% risk for C. difficile-associated with diarrhea.
  • A registry-based the study on the website of The BMJ explores a possible association between fluoroquinolone use and aortic aneurysm or dissection. Within 2 months of the date that a prescription was filled, the rates of aortic aneurysm or dissection for fluoroquinolone, compared with amoxicillin were significantly higher.
  • In 2 studies appearing in the March 8 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, slowed linear growth in pediatric patients and increased rates of dysphonia and oral candidiasis were observed among patients who received increased dose of inhaled corticosteroids during asthma exacerbation.
  • In the March first issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that, among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or admitted from the emergency department to non-ICU acute care, use of a more balanced crystalloid solution (instead of the saline) for fluid resuscitation was associated with fewer major adverse kidney events.
  • In the March issue of Chest, researchers compared the clinical characteristics of chest x-ray-negative, computer tomography (CT)-positive patients and patients in whom both modalities were interpreted as positive for pneumonia. Compared with those with pneumonia on both imaging studies, patients with CT-only pneumonia had similar distribution of bacterial and viral pathogens, similar hospital lengths of stay and similar rates of requiring intensive care.
  • In the March 20 issue of JAMA, an updated statement from the US Preventative Services Task Force on prevention of skin cancer through behavioral approaches recommends that patient aged 6 months to 24 years who are at high risk for skin cancer, or their parents, should be counseled about limiting exposure to UV radiation.
  • In the March 10 issue The Lancet, researchers compared coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention for treatment of multivessel or left main coronary artery disease, and found CABG showed a trend toward benefit in increasingly complex cases of coronary artery disease, but not in patients with left main disease or inpatients without diabetes.
  1. In a study on the website of The lancet, patients with type 1 diabetes who were being treated with multiple daily insulin injections and had risk factors for hypoglycemia were randomized to continuous real-time continuous glucose monitoring or to fingerstick self-monitoring for insulin adjustments. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring was found to be associated with fewer hypoglycemic episodes, compared with fingerstick self-monitoring.
  1. 在JAMA内科网站上进行的调查蛋白质摄入量对瘦体重和身体机能影响的试验中,男性(平均年龄73岁)被随机分配到蛋白质摄入量为每天0.8 g / kg或1.3 g / kg ,每周肌内注射睾酮或安慰剂。在6个月时, 研究人员发现, 接受睾酮的男性瘦体重增加, 不管蛋白质摄入量如何 (JAMA Intern Med 2018 Mar 12; (e-pub)) 。

  2. 在3月份关节炎护理和研究期刊上, 研究人员评估了鱼类消费对类风湿性关节炎患者关节疾病活动的影响。与每月吃鱼不超过一次的病人相比, 每周吃鱼超过两次的病人关节疾病活动显着降低, 并且每周增加一份鱼的消费, 疾病活动更进一降低 (Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2018 Mar; 70:327) 。

  3. 在2017年12月19日Cochreane系统综述数据库的一项荟萃分析发现,,益生菌
    可有效预防艰难梭菌相关性腹泻 (Cochrane Datebase Syst Rev 2017 Dec 19; 12:CD 006095) 。

  4. The BMJ网站上一项基于注册表的研究探索了使用氟喹诺酮和主动脉瘤或主动脉夹层的可能关联。2个月内,与使用阿莫西林相比,使用氟喹诺酮患者主动脉瘤或夹层的发生率显着更高 (BMJ 2018 Mar 8; 360:k678) 。

  5. 在3月8日“新英格兰医学杂志”的一项研究发现, 哮喘急性加重期吸入剂量皮质类固醇的患者线性生长慢(儿科患者), 声带疾和口腔念珠菌病发病率增加 (N Engl J Med 2018 Mar 8; 378:891) 。

  6. 在3月份“新英格兰医学杂志”上,研究人员发现, 在重症监护室或非重症监护室的患者中, 使用更均衡的晶体溶液(而不是生理盐水)进行液体复苏, 与主要不良肾脏事件少相关 (N Engl J Med 2018 Mar 1; 378:829) 。

  7. 在3月号的胸部杂志上,研究人员比较了胸部X线阴性, 计算机断层扫描(CT)阳性的肺炎患者和两种检查模式阳性的肺炎患者的临床特征。研究发现, 两种情况的细菌和病毒病原体分布相似, 住院时间相似, 需要重症监护的比例相似 (Chest 2018 Mar; 153:601) 。

  8. 在3月20日的JAMA上,美国预防性服务工作组通过了行为方法预防皮肤癌的最新建议: 有皮肤癌高风险的6个月至24岁的患者或其父母, 应该限制暴露于紫外线辐射 (JAMA 2018 Mar 20; 319:1134) 。

  9. 在3月10日的“柳叶刀”期刊上,研究人员比较了冠状动脉搭桥术(CABG)和经皮冠状动脉介入治疗多支血管病变或左主干病变。研究发现, CABG有利于复杂的冠状动脉病例, 而不是左主干病变或糖尿病患者 (Lancet 2018 Mar 10; 391:939) 。

  10. 在“柳叶刀”网站的一项研究中, 每日接受多次胰岛素注射,  并有低血糖危险的1型糖尿病患者被随机分配到实时连续血糖监测或手指胰岛素自我监测调整。与手指自我监测相比, 实时连续血糖监测低血糖发生较少 (Lancet 2018 Feb 16; (e-pub))。
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