医学新闻-1

admin Post in 2015.04, 医学新闻
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  1. In cohort study in February Annals of the Rheumatic Disease, researchers show that, compared with matched controls, patients with psoriatic arthritis who did not receive prescriptions for disease–modifying anti-rheumatic drus had significantly higher risk for major adverse cardiovascular events.
  2. In a retrospective study in the February 24 issue of JAMA, researchers assessed risk for bleeding and adverse cardiovascular events associated with concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)(and anti-thrombotic agents in patient who were discharged after first myocardial infarction (MI ). Compared with no NSAID use, fatal and nonfatal adverse cardiovascular events were about 40% more common in patients using NSAIDs, use of NSAIDs with more than 1 antithrombotic drug was associated with twice as many major bleeding events and the addition of NSAIDs to double and triple antithrombotic regimen was associated with an approximately 4–fold higher risk for major bleeding events.
  3. In a retrospective study on the website of the BMJ, researchers determining the rates of hospital readmissions and death during the first–year period after hospitalization for heart failure (HF ), acute MI or pneumonia in patients more than 65 years of age. They found that risks for hospital readmission and death remained significantly elevated for more than 3 months after hospitalization for all 3 groups.
  4. In a study on the website of Neurology, researchers examined the association between giant cell arteritis and varicella–zoster virus (VZV ). Their finding suggest that at least some cases of giant cell arteritis may be might be due to infection with VZV.
  5. In a study in February 26 New England Journal of Medicine, babies  at high risk for developing peanut allergy where randomized to avoidance or regular consumption of peanuts until the age of 5 year. Peanut consumption appears to be protective against development of allergy in children with negative skin test -prick tests at baseline and positive skin- prick tests at baseline but no reaction to oral peanut
  6. In a study on the website of The Lancet, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe airflow obstruction were randomized to receive roflumilast or placebo in addition to their regular regimens of long–acting beta–agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and long–acting muscarinic antagonists. The addition of roflumilast was associated with modest clinical benefit and  adverse effects.
  7. Findings from a study on the website of the BMJ suggest that the  benefits of moderate consumption of alcohol are more limited than those found in previous studies.
  8. In a study on the website of The BMJ, researchers used a primary care research database to determine optimal strategies for intensifying management of hypertension. The following factors were associated with excessive risk for adverse cardiovascular events and death: Using a systolic blood pressure of 150 mmHg as a threshold for intensifying treatment, time to treatment intensification greater than 1.4 months, time to follow-up greater than2.7 months after treatment intensification.
  9. In a meta–analysis in the February 10 issue of JAMA, researchers evaluate the benefit of lowering blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. They found that reducing systolic blood pressure by 10 mmHg was associated with a decrease of less than 30% in the relative risk for all–cause mortality, adverse cardiovascular events, albuminuria, retinopathy and stroke.
  10. In a study in the February Annals of Neurology, researchers show that, compared with matched controls, patients with breast, colorectal, lung and pancreatic pancreatic cancers  are at significantly elevated risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke during the first 3 months after diagnosis.

1.风湿病杂志一项队列研究表明,没有得到特定抗风湿治疗的银屑病关节炎患者主要心血管不良事件的风险, 与对照组相比显著增高 (Ann Rheum dis 2015 Feb; 74:326)。

2.在2月24日的JAMA上, 一项回顾性研究评估了首次心肌梗死出院后的病人同时使用抗血栓药物和非甾体抗炎药(NSAIDs)不良心血管事件和出血的风险。与没有使用NSAIDS相比,使用NSAIDs的患者致死性和非致死性心血管不良事件多40%,大出血事件增加 2 至 4 倍 (JAMA 2015 Feb 24; 313:805)。

3.在英国医学杂志网站上, 一项回顾性研究评估了超过65岁的患者因心脏衰竭(HF),急性心肌梗死或肺炎住院治疗后的第一年期间再住院和死亡的比率。他们发现,再住院和死亡的风险在所有3组均显著增高 (BMJ 2015 Feb 6; 350:h411)。

4.神经内科杂志网站上的一项研究评估了巨细胞动脉炎和水痘 – 带状疱疹病毒(VZV)之间的关联 (Neurology 2015 Feb 18; (e-pub))。

5.在2月26日的新英格兰医学杂志的一项研究中,有发展花生过敏高风险的婴儿,被随机分配避免或经常食用花生直到5年岁。结果表明, 食用花生可预防儿童发生过敏 (N Engl J Med 2015 Feb 26; 372:803)。

6.在柳叶刀杂志网站上的一项研究中,患有慢性阻塞性肺疾病和严重气流阻塞患者被随机分配接受罗氟司特 (roflumilast)或安慰剂, 除了他们本身使用的长效β受体激动剂,吸入糖皮质激素和长效毒蕈碱受体拮抗剂。结果表明, 加罗氟司特有一定的临床益处和副作用 (lancet 2015 Feb 12; (e-pub))。

  1. 来自英国医学杂志网站上的一项研究结果表明,适度饮酒的好处比以前的研究发现少 (BMJ 2015 Feb 10; 350:h384)。

8.在英国医学杂志网站上的一项研究中,研究人员使用了基层医疗研究数据库,以确定加强高血压管理的最优策略。以下因素都与不良心血管事件和死亡的过度风险有关:采用大于150毫米汞柱作为加强治疗阈值收缩压,强化治疗时间大于1.4个月, 跟进强化治疗时间大于2.7个月 (BMJ 2015 Feb 5; 350:h158)。

9.在2月10日的JAMA上,一项荟萃分析评价了降低2型糖尿病患者血压的益处。他们发现,降低收缩压10毫米汞柱,所有原因死亡率,心血管不良事件,蛋白尿,视网膜病变和中风的相对风险降低30% (JAMA 2015 Feb 10; 313: 603)。

10.神经病学年鉴的一项研究表明,乳腺癌,结肠直肠癌,肺癌和胰腺癌胰腺癌在诊断后的3个月内, 缺血性和出血性中风的风险显著升高 (Ann Neurol 2015 Feb; 77:291)。

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