医学要问-2

admin Post in 2015.04, 医学新闻
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新闻-2

  1. In a study in the January 8, 2015 issue of Blood, researchers assessed the risk for venous and arterial thrombosis after superficial venous thrombosis. Compared to controls, patients with superficial venous thrombosis are at higher risk for deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and adverse arterial events.
  1. In a study on the website of The Lancet, researchers compare the effects of statins in women to those in men. Compared with the effects seen in men, statin use in women was associated with similar effects on lipid levels and comparable overall reductions in major vascular events and all-cause mortality.
  1. Based on the findings from a meta-analysis in the January 2015 issue of Mayo Clinic Procedings and a randomized study in the February 2015 issue of Atherosclerosis, coenzyme Q10 should not be recommended for patients with statin-related myopathy, because use is associated with no significant improvements in frequency or severity of muscle symptoms.
  1. In the January 20, 2015 issue of Neurology, a double-blind crossover study compared pregabain with an active placebo (low-dose diphenhydramine) in patients with radiographically confirmed lumbar stenosis and > 3 months of neurogenic claudication. The result indicates that pregabalin did not have any significant therapeutic effects compared with placebo.
  1. In the January 29, 2015 New England Journal of Medicine, a phase II trial compared the selective bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, icatibant, with usual care for the management of angioedema of the upper aerodigestive tract induced by angiotensin –converting-enzyme inhibitors. Compared with patients who received usual care, those who received icatibant had significantly shorter times to the full resolution of angioedema and were more likely to have full resolution of their symptoms within 4 hr.
  1. In the January 13, 2015 issue of JAMA, data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study are used to assess risk for development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in individuals with and without asthma. Their results suggest that asthma is associated with increased risk for OSA independent of body-mass index (BMI).
  1. In a retrospective study in the January 27, 2015 issue of Neurology, researchers analyzed data on 200 patients with s confirmed diagnosis of acute encephalitis seen at a tertiary care medical center in Minnesota. Their findings  indicate that etiology remained unknown in 30% of cases.
  1. In a meta-analysis in the January 6, 2015 Annuals of Internal Medicine, researchers compared the efficacies of several pharmacologic options for the initial treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. They found that intra-articular hyaluronic acid was the most effective agent for pain.
  2. In a population-based, retrospective cohort study in the December 2014 American Journal of Gastroenterology, researchers estimated that annual incidence of esophageal cancer in patients with Barrett esophagus is <0.5%.
  1. In a trial in the January 29, 2015 New England Journal of Medicine, researchers randomized women with singleton pregnancies and hypertension (preexisting or gestational) to a diastolic blood pressure (BP) target of either 85 mmHg or 100 mmHg. Women randomized to tighter control BP had less risk of developing abnormally  low platelet counts or elevated liver function tests.

 

1.2015年1月8日血液杂志的一项研究评估了浅静脉血栓形成后深静脉和动脉血栓形成的风险。与对照组相比,浅静脉血栓患者形成深静脉血栓,肺栓塞和不良动脉事件的风险较高 (Blood 2015 Jan 18; 125:229)。
2.在柳叶刀杂志网站上的一项研究中,研究人员比较了他汀类药物在男性和女性的疗效。结果表明, 他汀类药物降低血脂水平, 减少主要血管事件和全因死亡率的效果在男性和女性相似 (Lancet 2015 Jan 8; (e-pub ahead of print))。
3.基于2015年1月梅奥诊所学报和2015年2月的动脉粥样硬化杂志的研究结果,辅酶Q10不应被推荐治疗他汀类药物相关性肌病。因为使用辅酶Q10对改善肌肉症状的频率和严重程度效果不显著 (Mayo Clin Proc 2015 Jan; 90:24) (Atherosclerosis 2015 Feb; 238: 329)。

  1. 在2015年1月20日神经学期刊上,一项双盲交叉研究比较了普瑞巴林 (pregabalin)治疗影像学证实的腰椎狭窄,>3个月神经性跛行患者的疗效。结果表明,普瑞巴林与安慰剂相比, 没有任何显著的治疗效果 (Neurology 2015 Jan 20; 84:265)。

5.在2015年1月29日的新英格兰医学杂志上,一项II期临床试验比较了选择性缓激肽B2受体拮抗剂艾替班特 (icatibant),与常规治疗对血管紧张素-converting酶抑制剂引起的上呼吸消化道血管性水肿的疗效。与常规治疗相比,接受艾替班特的患者,血管性水肿消除时间缩短, 更有可能在4小时内症状全部消除 (N Eng J Med 2015 Jan 29; 372: 418)。
6.在2015年1月13日JAMA杂志上,一项研究用来自威斯康星睡眠队列研究数据,来评估有和没有哮喘的患者发生阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停(OSA)的风险。结果表明,哮喘的患者发生阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停(OSA)的风险增加, 与体重指数(BMI)无关 (JAMA 2015 Jan 13; 313:156)。

  1. 在2015年1月27日的神经学期刊一项回顾性研究中,研究人员分析了在明尼苏达州的三级医疗中心确诊的200例急性脑炎数据。结果表明, 30%的病例病因不明 (Neurology 2015 Jan 27; 84: 359)。

8.2015年1月6日内科年鉴一项荟萃分析,比较了几种初步治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的药物的疗效。他们发现,关节内透明质酸是对疼痛最有效一项药物 (Ann Intern Med 2015 Jan 6; 162:46)。
9.在2014年12月美国胃肠病学杂志一项以人群为基础一项回顾性队列研究中,研究人员估计, Barrett食管患者食管癌年发病率<0.5% (Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Dec; 109:1862)。
10.在2015年1月29日的新英格兰医学杂志的试验中,研究人员将单胎妊娠高血压(预先存在或妊娠高血压)的孕妇随机分配到舒张压(BP)的目标85毫米汞柱或100毫米汞柱。血压严格控制组发生异常血小板计数降低或肝功能升高的风险较小 (N Engl J Med 2015 Jan 29; 372:407)。

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