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  1. Updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, which appear in the February 3 Annals of Internal Medicine recommended that all adults equal or greater than 65 year of age receive 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and 23–valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination.
  2. A long term follow–up study in the March 15 Clinical Infectious Disease monitored the benefits of the herpes zoster vaccine over time, and found that, by year 10, efficacy against herpes zoster virus had failed to 14%.
  3. A study in the March Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology found that, among 70,000 patients with documented allergy to penicillin who received a cephalosporin, the most common adverse reaction was nonallergic reaction.
  4. Based on the findings of a 5–year study of thyroid nodules in the March 3 JAMA, editorialists suggest that repeated ultrasonography is unnecessary in patients with benign fine-needle aspirate on baseline examination and no suspicious feature ultrasonography.
  5. The study on the website of JAMA Dermatology demonstrates that patients diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid have no excess risk for malignancy.
  6. Three recently published reports (December 4, 2014 New England Journal of Medicine: March 3, 2015 Journal of American College of Cardiology: Feb 28, 2015 The Lancets ) comparing the risks and benefits of dual antiplatelet therapy to those aspirin alone found that dual therapy was associated with no significant mortality benefit.
  7. A study in the website of The Lancets Neurology compared antiplatelet therapy to anticoagulant therapy in patients with extracranial carotid  or vertebral artery dissection. Anticoagulation was found to be potentially beneficial for patients with angiographically documented thrombosis.
  8. Two randomized controlled trials(ESCAPE and EXTEND-IA)in the March 12 New England Journal of Medicine assessed the benefits of endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke, documented occlusion of the internal carotid artery or proximal middle cerebral artery branches, and salvageable brain tissue visible on computed  tomographic perfusion imaging. These trials were stopped early due to internal analysis showing significantly  higher rates of good outcomes in patients who receive endovascular therapy and significantly

lower mortality in patients who received endovascular therapy.

  1. 2月3日内科年鉴杂志发表了免疫咨询委员最新建议, 所有等于或大于65岁的成年人均需接受13价肺炎球菌结合疫苗和23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗 (Ann Intern Med 2015 Feb 3; 162:214)。
  1. 3月15日临床感染性疾病杂志发表了长期随访监测带状疱疹疫苗益处结果。他们发现, 到了苐十年疫苗的保护功效未能到14% (Clin Infet Dis 2015 Mar 15; 60:900)。
  1. 三月的过敏和临床免疫学杂志的研究发现,在70000例证明对青霉素过敏,接受了头孢菌素的患者中,最常见的不良反应是非过敏性反应 (J Alergy Clin Immunol 2015 Mar; 135:745)。
  1. 基于3月3日JAMA 5年的甲状腺结节研究结果,编辑们建议, 反复超声检查对于细针穿刺良性,无可疑超声检查的患者是不必要的 (JAMA 2015 Mar 3; 313:926)。
  1. JAMA皮肤科网站上的研究表明,诊断为大疱性类天疱疮的患者, 恶性肿瘤的风险并不增加 (Jama Dermatol 2015 Feb 11; (e-pub))。
  1. 最近发表的报告比较了双重抗血小板治疗与单独使用阿司匹林治疗的风险和益处。 他们发现双重治疗并不显著降低死亡率 (N Engl J Med 2014 Dec; 371: 2155)。
  1. 在刺血针神经内科杂志网站上, 一项研究比较了抗凝治疗与抗血小板治疗颅外颈动脉或椎动脉夹层形成。抗凝治疗被认为是有利于血管造影证实了的血栓形成的患者 (Lancet Neurol 2015 Feb 12; (e-pub))。
  1. 3月12日的新英格兰医学杂志两个随机对照试验评估了血管内机械性除血拴术治疗急性缺血性卒中的益处。结果表明,接受血管腔内机械性除血拴术治疗的患者预后较好死亡率较低 (N Engl J Med 2015 Mar 12; 372:1009)
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